Category Archives: munki

Custom location detection using CIDR range

Ask the right questions and you’ll get helpful answers.  Ask some code if an IP exists within the CIDR range and the brief answer can be powerful.

Services like munki, reposado, or other internal offering in your company can be replicated out to other locations but if the client settings never change they’ll continue to use the original settings even if the computer is in a different office across the country. That can be expensive in time and bandwidth — if there is inter-office connectivity at all. Every computer on the network gets an IP, and every IP is in a CIDR range. Why not use that information to help.

You can determine where a computer is based on your documented CIDR ranges and checking if the current IP is in one of those ranges. Systematically processing that information can help with the task of re-configuring based on locale. A simple boolean answer can be parsed to mean anything for your environment. It’s what you do with that answer that makes the difference.

First, you need to know what CIDR ranges are active in your company’s network.  Whoever setup the network should be able to provide that information.  Be sure to double check the translation of CIDR to IP ranges. There is a site that can translate CIDR to the IP range. I had a few instances of CIDRs provided were overlapping and caused unexpected results when certain IPs were used.

Next, figure out what information you want returned.  For my implementation I went the simple route and have the script return a single value that signifies which company office the IP is in.  You can have it return as much as you want and make it as complex as you want.

The following perl code returns true if a supplied IP exists in a supplied CIDR range.

#!/usr/bin/perl
use Net::CIDR::Lite;
use Getopt::Std;

#"i"P address and "c"IDR notated range
getopt ('ic');

my $cidr = Net::CIDR::Lite->new;
$cidr->add($opt_c);
print "true\n" if $cidr->find($opt_i);

The following script iterates thru the known company CIDR ranges with the current computer’s IP address and sends those two pieces of information to the perl script until a match is found. When the IP exists inside a site’s CIDR range it will return the value of the site.

#!/bin/bash
# To use this in other scripts reference it by
#   /Library/Management/Scripts/cidr/cidr-check.sh [ -i ip_address ]
#
#   If no IP is provided by the -i argument the current IP on the computer the script is being run on will be used.
# 
#   Site            Return Value
#
#   Des Moines      DSM    
#   New York        NY
#   Chicago         CHI
###############################################################

#Locations of helper scripts
scriptLocation=/Library/Management/Scripts/cidr/
cidrCheckScript=check_IP_and_CIDR.pl

activeiface=`route get google.com | awk '/interface/ {print $2}'`

#Get the current IP address
#Read in the arguments
usage="Usage: cidr-check.sh [-h] [-i ip_address]"
while getopts i:h flag
do case "$flag" in
	i ) ip="$OPTARG";;
	h ) echo $usage
		exit 1;;
    * ) echo $usage
		exit 1;;
esac
done

#Shift out the switches and arguments, leaving the actual
#variables we're operating against
shift $(($OPTIND - 1))

if [ -z $ip ]
then
    ip=`/sbin/ifconfig $activeiface | /usr/bin/awk '/inet / {print $2}'`
fi

#Flag to mark whether the IP has been found
ipFound=n

###############################################################
#           Lists of CIDR range names                         #
###############################################################
dsmCidrRangeNames=(currentCIDR_DSM1 currentCIDR_DSM2)
dsmCidrRangeNames_Site="DSM"
chiCidrRangeNames=(currentCIDR_CHI)
chiCidrRangeNames_Site="CHI"
nycCidrRangeNames=(currentCIDR_NYC)
nycCidrRangeNames_Site="NY"

##Eastern Time CIDR ranges
    #New York
        currentCIDR_NYC=1.2.0.0/18
##Central Time CIDR ranges
    #Chicago
        currentCIDR_CHI=1.3.224.0/20
    #Des Moines
        currentCIDR_DSM1=1.4.0.0/16
        currentCIDR_DSM2=1.5.0.0/16
###############################################################

if [ "$ipFound" = "n" ]
then
	for cidrRange in ${dsmCidrRangeNames[@]}
	do
		if [ "`${scriptLocation}${cidrCheckScript} -i "$ip" -c ${!cidrRange}`" = "true" ]
		then
			returnValue="${dsmCidrRangeNames_Site}"

			#Mark that we fnd the IP address
			ipFound=y

			#Break out of the for loop
			break
		fi
	done
fi

#CHI
if [ "$ipFound" = "n" ]
then
	for cidrRange in ${chiCidrRangeNames[@]}
	do
		if [ "`${scriptLocation}${cidrCheckScript} -i "$ip" -c ${!cidrRange}`" = "true" ]
		then
			returnValue="${chiCidrRangeNames_Site}"

			#Mark that we fnd the IP address
			ipFound=y

			#Break out of the for loop
			break
		fi
	done
fi

#NYC
if [ "$ipFound" = "n" ]
then
	for cidrRange in ${nycCidrRangeNames[@]}
	do
		if [ "`${scriptLocation}${cidrCheckScript} -i "$ip" -c ${!cidrRange}`" = "true" ]
		then
			returnValue="${nycCidrRangeNames_Site}"

			#Mark that we fnd the IP address
			ipFound=y

			#Break out of the for loop
			break
		fi
	done
fi

if [ "$ipFound" = "n" ]
then
	#We didn't find the IP in a CIDR range
	/bin/echo "IP: $ip not within the specified CIDR ranges." 2>&1
	exit -1
fi

/bin/echo "${returnValue}"

exit 0

With that information I now know what location that computer has an IP from. Those two pieces of code can be re-used as a function in any number of ways. One way we use it is to configure munki to point at the local repo for pkgs, icons, and client_resources during its preflight execution on every run. That way regardless of what office the computer is in it won’t cross the WAN to pull a pkg.

#!/bin/bash
# Script to determine local site and change munki urls to local resources
# Uses 'cidr-check.sh' to determine the site based on IP

#Static variables
munkiConfig=/Library/Preferences/ManagedInstalls
cidrCheckScript=/Library/Management/Scripts/cidr/cidr-check.sh
centralMunkiServer=munki.YOUR.DOMAIN.COM
#################

#Check to see if we're running as root
if [ `id -u` != 0 ]; then
	echo $0: "You must have root privileges to run this command!  Exiting."
	exit 1
fi

#Set the variable "localSite" to the returned value from 'cidr-check.sh'
localSite=`"${cidrCheckScript}"`
echo Local site determined to be "${localSite}"

#Determining the local PackageURL to use
case $localSite in

	DSM )	
			localServer=('munki-dsm.YOUR.DOMAIN.COM')
			;;

	NY )	
			localServer=('munki-nyc.YOUR.DOMAIN.COM')
			;;

	CHI )	
			localServer=('munki-chi.YOUR.DOMAIN.COM')
			;;
	#All other locations should default to the central server
	* )		
			localServer=('munki-dsm.YOUR.DOMAIN.COM')
			;;
esac

echo Local server determined to be "${localServer}"

#If we can't talk to the local munki server, use the central server
if ! ping -o -c 5 "${localServer}" > /dev/null 2>&1
then
	localServer="${centralMunkiServer}"
fi

#Write the local munki URLs
defaults write "${munkiConfig}" PackageURL http://"${localServer}"/repo/pkgs
defaults write "${munkiConfig}" IconURL http://"${localServer}"/repo/icons
defaults write "${munkiConfig}" ClientResourceURL http://"${localServer}"/repo/client_resources

#Write the central munki URL for everything else
defaults write "${munkiConfig}" SoftwareRepoURL http://"${centralMunkiServer}"/repo

#echo Converting ManagedInstalls.plist to XML, the original format of the file
plutil -convert xml1 ${munkiConfig}.plist

I’m sure there are multiple ways to handle this type of problem. I’d love to hear how you handle the complexity of roaming computers and keeping configurations local.

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Syntax highlighting of munki pkginfo files

Do you ever fire up TextWrangler and open a pkginfo file used in munki to adjust or add a key but when you go to actually add that key you can’t remember the exact format of the syntax?  Was it “update_for” or “update-for”?  It kinda matters.  Lucky for us there is a syntax highlighting feature in TextWrangler (and BBEdit) that allows for customization called Language Modules.

I’ve created a munki Language Module, available on github,  that lets you breath a little easier in knowing your syntax typo is not the reason munki is looping…that’s something else you’ve done.

Using the Language Module is fairly easy.  To install:

  1. Download and copy the munki_langauage_module.plist to ~/Library/Application Support/TextWrangler/Language Modules/
  2. Restart TextWrangler.
  3. Adjust keyword and predefined syntax highlighting colors in the TextWrangler preferences if you so choose.

This module sets TextWrangler to detect all files that end in .plist as munki pkgsinfo files.
If that is not desirable and you’d rather have standard XML highlighting, then remove the BBLMSuffixMap key from the plist or change the syntax highlight language when you open the file.

Inside TextWrangler you can manually choose the language syntax highlighting from the options at the bottom of the TextWrangler window. Choose “Munki Pkgsinfo” to apply the highlighting.  That’s it!

Below is an example of the difference between a syntax highlighted file on the left and a plain text file on the right.

side-by-side

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